Reko Diq Copper and Gold Mining: Issues & Recommendations



Chromites: Chromite deposits of Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa must be considered from a regional standpoint that could enable Pakistan to become a major exporter of chromite and /or ferrochrome. In NWFP its deposits are 1) In Dargai there are estimated reserves 0.7 Mt of which 0.3Mts are proven. 2) In Heroshah, open pit reserves of around 0.1 Mt have been proved.3) Similary in Jijal-pattan and Chilas areas (Kohistan) Shunghail prospect appear to contain 0.2 Mt reserves.

Coal:In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa there is no large deposit of coal. Two small ones are present which are briefly described in tabular form.This coal is graded as good quality coal found in Pakistan.

Bauxite:In the province of KhyberPakhtunkhwa, Bauxite is found in Hazara District.

Gypsum:The largest resources of gypsum found in Pakistan are in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The reserves are mainly found in D.I.Khan&Kohatdistrict .

Phosphates:Khyber Pakhtunkhwa  contains Cambrian sedimentary phosphates of marine origin, mainly in the upper clayey dolomite of abbottoabad Formation (cherty phosphate) 0-0 and underlying cherty – silty – sandy beds of Hazara formation.

Reserves and Grades:Grades of two major ore types and their reserves are as under:

Dolomitic ore (generally low to medium in P2 O5 & SiO2 and high in MgO).

Siliceous ore (generally medium to high in P2O5 and SiO2 and low in MgO.

Magnesite:PIDC used to hold the lease for magnesite mines at Kumhar in Abbottabad established around 11 million tons geological &3 million tons mineable reserves containing acceptable 46% – 47% magnesium oxide.

Limestone:Pakistan is bestowed with extensive deposits of suitable quality of limestone in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Areas. The average annual production of limestone is 8697 Metric tons used mainly in the manufacture of cement. Road making, building construction and in the chemicals industries.

China Clay:Presently the major production comes from shah Dheri, Swat where an elutriation plant has been established. Country’s average yearly production of china clay is 61,403 metric tons.

Marbles:Marbles of different classifications, fossil ferrous limestone, serpentine etc occur in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in Northern Areas. Out of 160.2 million tons of marble reserves estimated in Pakistan, 158 million tons are in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Gem Stones:Pakistan ranks amongst leading gem-hosting countries. Owing to favorable geological environments, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, AJ&K and Northern Areas are the major gem hosting regions of the country. The gemstones include; Emerald, Ruby, Pink Topaz, Peridot, Green Ruby deposits of Hunza and AJ&K all other gemstone deposits have not been studied scientifically and are undocumented.

Soap Stone:Soapstone is used in Ceramics, face powder and as filler in soap industry. In NWFP, its deposits are in Sherwan in Abbotabad district.


Coal:According to estimates prepared by the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP), Pakistan has total coal reserves of 185 billion tons, out of which 184 Million Tons Billion tons are in Sindh, one of the biggest good quality lignite deposit in the World.

Salt:Bright prospects exist for the development of high purity solar salt facility around the coastal areas of Karachi. Solar salt so produced has export potential to the growing Southeast Asian Chemical industries and for the growing industries established throughout the country.

Limestone:Pakistan is bestowed with extensive deposits of suitable quality limestone in Sindh. In sindh it is found in GanjoTakkar, Murli Hills, Mango Pir, Cape Monze, KotDiji and Ranipir. It is used mainly in the manufacture of cement. Road making, building construction and in the chemicals industries.

Carbonate Soda:Present in large quantity in Nara Taluka of Khaipur State, in Nawabshah, Umerkot and Shah Bandar.

Calestine:The estimated reserves are 300,000 tons. Celestite is used in signal rockets and flares, tracer bullets, transportation warning fused and fire-works. It is also used in Strontium compound Ceramics, luminous paints, plastics industries. In Sindh, Calestine deposits are found in ThanoBulaKhan.

China Clay:In Sind it is found in Nagar Parkar, in Tharparkar District. Is used in cement, paper, and rubber filter. It contains 16-31% Clay. It is also known as Kaolin.

Natural Oil:There are three renowned oil fields in Sindh which are briefly described in tabular form below.

NaturalGas:In Sindh Natural Gas is found in Khairpur, Kandkot , Mari, Golarchi and Khaskheli.